How does tamoxifen work

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  1. zaq-zaq Moderator

    How does tamoxifen work


    In the last three decades, thousands of women with breast cancer have taken the drug tamoxifen, only to discover that the therapy doesn’t work, either because their tumors do not respond to the treatment at all, or because they develop resistance to it over time. Now researchers at the University of California, San Francisco (UCSF) have discovered the molecular basis for tamoxifen resistance and found a potential way to defeat it. 13, 2011, at the AACR-NCI-EORTC International Conference: Molecular Targets and Cancer Therapeutics, UCSF oncologist Pamela Munster, MD, and her colleagues will present the results of clinical studies and laboratory experiments that show how some tumors resist tamoxifen and how this resistance can be overcome by administering a second class of drugs.“Understanding the mechanism of tamoxifen resistance and how to defeat it may help a large number of women with hormone-resistant breast cancer,” said Munster. “It may lead quickly to new, more effective treatment strategies and may help to identify biomarkers to help to gauge whether or not someone will respond to treatment in the first place.”The results will be presented at a press conference at a.m. (PST) in room 2004 of the Moscone Convention Center in San Francisco. The National Cancer Institute estimates that more than 200,000 Americans are diagnosed with breast cancer every year. It is the second leading cause of cancer death among American women, claiming more than 40,000 lives in 2009 alone. About 65 percent of women with breast cancer have tumors that, when examined in biopsies, show signs of co-opting a naturally occurring molecule in the human body called the estrogen receptor. In 2006, the large STAR clinical study concluded that raloxifene is equally effective in reducing the incidence of breast cancer, but after an average 4-year follow-up, although the difference was not statistically significant, there were 36% fewer uterine cancers and 29% fewer blood clots in women taking raloxifene than in women taking tamoxifen. Tamoxifen improves fertility in males with infertility by disinhibiting the hypothalamic–pituitary–gonadal axis (HPG axis) via ER antagonism and thereby increasing the secretion of luteinizing hormone (LH) and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and increasing testicular testosterone production. It is taken as a preventative measure in small doses, or used at the onset of any symptoms such as nipple soreness or sensitivity. Other drugs are taken for similar purposes such as clomifene and the anti-aromatase drugs which are used in order to try to avoid the hormone-related adverse effects. Occasionally tamoxifen is used in treatment of the rare conditions of retroperitoneal fibrosis A report in September 2009 from Health and Human Services' Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality suggests that tamoxifen, raloxifene, and tibolone used to treat breast cancer significantly reduce invasive breast cancer in midlife and older women, but also increase the risk of adverse side effects. Some cases of lower-limb lymphedema have been associated with the use of tamoxifen, due to the blood clots and deep vein thrombosis (DVT) that can be caused by this medication. Resolution of the blood clots or DVT is needed before lymphedema treatment can be initiated.

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    Scientists aren't sure exactly how the drug works. But they do know that some breast cancer cells are. Using fermentation techniques associated with wines and ales, Real Kombucha is the non-alcoholic drink of choice for Britain's top chefs and mixologists. Tamoxifen Nolvadex hormone therapy side effects, how it's given, how it works, precautions and self care tips for treatment of breast cancer. If you miss a dose, do not take a double dose the next day. The amount of tamoxifen that you will.

    Tamoxifen won't work on hormone-receptor-negative breast cancer. Tamoxifen is available in two forms: a pill taken once a day (brand name: Nolvadex) or a liquid form (brand name: Soltamox). If you dislike pills or you're having trouble swallowing tamoxifen pills, Soltamox can help make it easier to stay on your treatment plan. Most doctors recommend taking tamoxifen at the same time each day. — while you are taking tamoxifen and for 2 months afterward. You should not take tamoxifen if you are breastfeeding, pregnant, trying to get pregnant, or if there is any chance that you could be pregnant. You should use an effective non-hormonal type of birth control — such as condoms, a diaphragm along with spermicide, or a non-hormonal I. Ask your doctor which type of non-hormonal birth control would be best for you. Since its approval in 1998, tamoxifen has been used to treat millions of women and men diagnosed with hormone-receptor-positive breast cancer. While an aromatase inhibitor is the first hormonal therapy medicine choice for postmenopausal women, tamoxifen is the first choice for premenopausal women and is still a good choice for postmenopausal women who can't take an aromatase inhibitor. side effect of tamoxifen is blood clots, including deep vein thrombosis (DVT) and pulmonary embolus. In some cases, health care professionals may use the trade name Nolvadex when referring to the generic drug name tamoxifen. This medication is classified as an "anti-estrogen." (For more detail, see "How this drug works" section below). You should seek emergency help and notify your health care provider immediately if you develop sudden chest pain and shortness of breath. Notify your health care provider within 24 hours if you notice that one leg is swollen, red, painful and/or warm to touch and the other is not. A side effect of tamoxifen can be the development of uterine cancer. Women who have not had a hysterectomy should have regular pap smears and gyn examinations. Abnormal vaginal bleeding should be reported to your health care provider.

    How does tamoxifen work

    Tamoxifen for Breast Cancer Treatment and Prevention, Real Kombucha - non-alcoholic fermentation at its finest

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    • Ten Years of Tamoxifen Reduces Breast Cancer Recurrences..
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    Tamoxifen is an "anti-estrogen" and works by competing with estrogen to bind to estrogen receptors in breast cancer cells. Tamoxifen is formally known as a selective estrogen receptor modulator SERM. By blocking estrogen in the breast, tamoxifen helps slow the growth and reproduction of breast cancer cells. THURSDAY, Dec. 6, 2018 HealthDay News -- Tamoxifen is considered a vital weapon in the fight against breast cancer, but many women who have to take the drug struggle with its significant side. How does tamoxifen work? Figure 5.9 below shows how tamoxifen works. Hormone receptor-positive breast cancers need estrogen and/or progesterone female hormones produced in the body to grow. Tamoxifen attaches to the hormone receptor in the cancer cell, blocking estrogen from attaching to the receptor.

     
  7. FredKas Well-Known Member

    The clinical value of antibiotic prophylaxis in preventing Lyme disease remains uncertain, owing to a meta-analysis lacking sufficient power to demonstrate efficacy and a more recent trial showing effectiveness but lacking precision. Our objective was to update our prior meta-analysis on antibiotic prophylaxis for the prevention of Lyme disease, to obtain a more precise estimate of treatment effect. Clinical trials were identified by searching MEDLINE, Embase, the Cochrane Library and trial registries, and by an assessment of the bibliographies of retrieved articles and reviews. Trials were selected if their patients were randomly allocated to a treatment or placebo group within 72 h following an tick bite and had no clinical evidence of Lyme disease at enrolment. Details of the trial design, patient characteristics, interventions and outcomes were extracted from each article. Four placebo-controlled clinical trials were included for review. Among 1082 randomized subjects, the risk of Lyme disease in the placebo group was 2.2% [95% confidence interval (CI), 1.2%–3.9%] compared with 0.2% (95% CI, 0.0%–1.0%) in the antibiotic-treated group. Antibiotic prophylaxis significantly reduced the odds of developing Lyme disease compared with placebo (pooled odds ratio = 0.084; 95% CI, 0.0020–0.57; spp. The most common clinical manifestation is an expanding skin lesion, erythema migrans, which usually occurs at the site of the tick bite after 7–14 days. Efficacy of antibiotic prophylaxis for the prevention of Lyme disease. Tick Bite Prophylaxis Tick-borne Diseases Ticks CDC Doxycycline dosage for tick bite - MedHelp
     
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    Metformin in Longevity Study MILES. - Full Text View. Metformin, an FDA approved first-line drug for the treatment of type 2 diabetes, has known beneficial effects on glucose metabolism. Evidence from animal models and in vitro studies suggest that in addition to its effects on glucose metabolism, metformin may influence metabolic and cellular processes associated with the development of age-related conditions, such as inflammation, oxidative.

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